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<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<!DOCTYPE xep SYSTEM 'xep.dtd' [
<!ENTITY % ents SYSTEM 'xep.ent'>
<?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='xep.xsl'?>
<title>XMPP Nodes</title>
<abstract>This specification more clearly defines the nature of nodes as used in the Service Discovery and Publish-Subscribe extensions to the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP).</abstract>
<spec>XMPP Core</spec>
<remark><p>Initial published version; per Council discussion changed local to localpart.</p></remark>
<remark><p>Added more examples.</p></remark>
<remark><p>Initial version.</p></remark>
<section1 topic='Introduction' anchor='intro'>
<p>Both &xep0030; and &xep0060; refer to "nodes" in relation to XMPP entities. However, the concept of an XMPP node has never been clearly specified (e.g., in &rfc3920; or &rfc6120;). This document attempts to remedy that oversight.</p>
<section1 topic='Definition' anchor='def'>
<p>To clarify the nature of a node, it is first helpful to describe the architecture of XMPP systems.</p>
<p>Because XMPP is a client-server technology that relies on the Domain Name System, the fundamental building block of XMPP systems is the <strong>"domain"</strong>. The idea of an Internet domain is borrowed from the real world, where a domain is an area of physical territory over which an individual or organization has control (e.g., the United States of America). Similarly, an Internet domain (e.g., jabber.org or xmpp.org) is a virtual space or area that is controlled by an individual or organization (e.g., Jeremie Miller or the XMPP Standards Foundation). Given the workings of the Domain Name System, it is also possible to have "subdomains" such as planet.jabber.org or interop.xmpp.org, which can be seen as the virtual equivalent of administrative subdivisions in the real world (e.g., a particular state within the USA, such as Colorado). In any case, a domain identifier is the primary portion of a JabberID (e.g., "jabber.org" in the JID "stpeter@jabber.org"), and can stand alone as a complete JabberID.</p>
<p>A given physical domain contains particular points or places. Similarly, a given virtual domain can contain particular points or entities. These entities are often thought of as accounts (e.g., the URI mailto:stpeter@jabber.org represents an email account and the URI xmpp:stpeter@jabber.org represents an XMPP account), but other entity types are possible (e.g., jdev@conference.jabber.org happens to be a &xep0045; room. Confusingly, the part of a JabberID that identifies an account or entity within the scope of an XMPP domain is called a node (e.g., the string "stpeter" in the JabberID stpeter@jabber.org is called a "node identifier"). Unfortunately, this usage collides with the term "node" as used in Service Discovery and Publish-Subscribe. Therefore we suggest the term <strong>"localpart"</strong> for a particular point or entity in an XMPP domain. A localpart identifier is an optional secondary portion of a JabberID (e.g., "stpeter" in the JID "stpeter@jabber.org").</p>
<p>A given domain or localpart can have various assets associated with it; in XMPP these assets are called <strong>"resources"</strong>. In the case of an account registered with an XMPP service, such resources are typically devices or connections. In the case of a multi-user chat room, such resources are usually room occupants. And so on. A resource identifier is an optional tertiary portion of a JabberID (e.g., "roundabout" in the JID "stpeter@jabber.org/roundabout" or "psa" in the JID "jdev@conference.jabber.org/psa").</p>
<p>The Service Discovery and Publish-Subscribe extensions to XMPP use an optional quaternary identifer called a <strong>"node"</strong>, which identifies a particular facet or aspect of an XMPP domain, localpart, or resource. The exact nature of a node depends on the protocol in use:</p>
<li><p><cite>XEP-0030: Service Discovery</cite> -- Here a node is typically that facet or aspect of an XMPP entity that handles requests and provides responses related to a particular protocol or feature bundle. For example, a service discovery information request to the node "http://jabber.org/protocol/commands" may return all of the &xep0050; supported by the responding entity, a service discovery information request to the node "http://jabber.org/protocol/muc#rooms" may return all of the multi-user chat rooms in which an entity is an occupant, and a service discovery information request to the node "pubsub/nodes" may return all of the pubsub nodes that are hosted by a publish-subscribe service (thus this node acts as a kind of "meta-node").</p></li>
<li><p><cite>XEP-0060: Publish-Subscribe</cite> -- Here a node is a particular "channel" or "feed" hosted at a publish-subscribe service, where the nature of the channel or feed is defined in part by the characteristic payload published at the node (e.g., Atom notifications) and in part by the focus or topic of such payloads (e.g., Atom notifications related triggered by new entries at the Planet Jabber weblog aggregation site).</p></li>
<p>As shown in the following examples, a node is not encapsulated in the JabberID but instead is communicated in protocol to indicate that the interaction is directed to or from a specific facet of a domain, a localpart, or a resource.</p>
<example caption="Nodes in Service Discovery: a disco#info request directed to a specific node"><![CDATA[
<iq type='get'
<query xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/disco#info'
<example caption="Nodes in Publish-Subscribe: a publish request directed to a specific node"><![CDATA[
<iq type='set'
<pubsub xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/pubsub'>
<publish node='princely_musings'>
<entry xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom'>
To be, or not to be: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them?
<link rel='alternate' type='text/html'
<section1 topic='Use in XMPP URIs' anchor='uri'>
<p>As authorized by &xep0147;, the &REGISTRAR; maintains a registry of queries and key-value pairs for use in XMPP URIs at &QUERYTYPES;.</p>
<p>The "disco" and "pubsub" querytypes are already registered, including the "node" key.</p>
<p>In order to specify a node "foo" as a quaternary identifier without specifying a "disco" querytype or "pubsub" querytype, an XMPP URI can be constructed as follows:</p>
<example caption="XMPP URI With Node"><![CDATA[
<p>This URI can be parsed as follows:</p>
<ol start="1">
<li>Primary identifier: "example.org"</li>
<li>Secondary identifier: "romeo"</li>
<li>Tertiary identifier: [none]</li>
<li>Quaternary identifier: "foo"</li>
<section1 topic='Internationalization Considerations' anchor='i18n'>
<p>An XMPP node can include any UTF-8 character.</p>
<section1 topic='Security Considerations' anchor='security'>
<p>This specification introduces no security considerations above and beyond those discussed in <cite>RFC 6120</cite>, <cite>XEP-0030</cite>, <cite>XEP-0060</cite>.</p>
<section1 topic='IANA Considerations' anchor='iana'>
<p>This document requires no interaction with &IANA;.</p>
<section1 topic='XMPP Registrar Considerations' anchor='registrar'>
<p>This document requires no interaction with the &REGISTRAR;.</p>