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/**
* Gamecube controller to Nintendo 64 adapter
* by Andrew Brown
* Rewritten for N64 to HID by Peter Den Hartog
* http://www.instructables.com/id/Use-an-Arduino-with-an-N64-controller/?ALLSTEPS
* Modified for Atmega32u4 USB-HID by Jarno Lehtinen
*/
/**
* To use, hook up the following to the Arduino Duemilanove:
* Digital I/O 2: N64 serial line
* All appropriate grounding and power lines
*/
#include "Joystick.h"
//#define DEBUG
//USE PIN 4 FOR DATA PIN!
//USE ONLY 3.3V FOR VCC AND DATA!
//TIMINGS ARE FOR 16MHz ATmega! (ATmega32u4 3.3V is 8MHz)
#include "pins_arduino.h"
#define N64_PIN 4 //2
#define N64_PIN_DIR DDRD
// these two macros set arduino pin 2 to input or output, which with an
// external 1K pull-up resistor to the 3.3V rail, is like pulling it high or
// low. These operations translate to 1 op code, which takes 2 cycles
#define N64_HIGH DDRD &= ~0x16 //0x04
#define N64_LOW DDRD |= 0x16 //0x04
#define N64_QUERY (PIND & 0x16)//0x04)
// 8 bytes of data that we get from the controller
struct {
// bits: 0, 0, 0, start, y, x, b, a
unsigned char data1;
// bits: 1, L, R, Z, Dup, Ddown, Dright, Dleft
unsigned char data2;
char stick_x;
char stick_y;
} N64_status;
char N64_raw_dump[33]; // 1 received bit per byte
void N64_send(unsigned char *buffer, char length);
void N64_get();
void print_N64_status();
void translate_raw_data();
/**
* This CRC table for repeating bytes is take from
* the cube64 project
* http://cia.vc/stats/project/navi-misc/cube64
*/
unsigned char crc_repeating_table[] = {
0xFF, 0x14, 0xAC, 0x47, 0x59, 0xB2, 0x0A, 0xE1, 0x36,
0xDD, 0x65, 0x8E, 0x90, 0x7B, 0xC3, 0x28, 0xE8, 0x03,
0xBB, 0x50, 0x4E, 0xA5, 0x1D, 0xF6, 0x21, 0xCA, 0x72,
0x99, 0x87, 0x6C, 0xD4, 0x3F, 0xD1, 0x3A, 0x82, 0x69,
0x77, 0x9C, 0x24, 0xCF, 0x18, 0xF3, 0x4B, 0xA0, 0xBE,
0x55, 0xED, 0x06, 0xC6, 0x2D, 0x95, 0x7E, 0x60, 0x8B,
0x33, 0xD8, 0x0F, 0xE4, 0x5C, 0xB7, 0xA9, 0x42, 0xFA,
0x11, 0xA3, 0x48, 0xF0, 0x1B, 0x05, 0xEE, 0x56, 0xBD,
0x6A, 0x81, 0x39, 0xD2, 0xCC, 0x27, 0x9F, 0x74, 0xB4,
0x5F, 0xE7, 0x0C, 0x12, 0xF9, 0x41, 0xAA, 0x7D, 0x96,
0x2E, 0xC5, 0xDB, 0x30, 0x88, 0x63, 0x8D, 0x66, 0xDE,
0x35, 0x2B, 0xC0, 0x78, 0x93, 0x44, 0xAF, 0x17, 0xFC,
0xE2, 0x09, 0xB1, 0x5A, 0x9A, 0x71, 0xC9, 0x22, 0x3C,
0xD7, 0x6F, 0x84, 0x53, 0xB8, 0x00, 0xEB, 0xF5, 0x1E,
0xA6, 0x4D, 0x47, 0xAC, 0x14, 0xFF, 0xE1, 0x0A, 0xB2,
0x59, 0x8E, 0x65, 0xDD, 0x36, 0x28, 0xC3, 0x7B, 0x90,
0x50, 0xBB, 0x03, 0xE8, 0xF6, 0x1D, 0xA5, 0x4E, 0x99,
0x72, 0xCA, 0x21, 0x3F, 0xD4, 0x6C, 0x87, 0x69, 0x82,
0x3A, 0xD1, 0xCF, 0x24, 0x9C, 0x77, 0xA0, 0x4B, 0xF3,
0x18, 0x06, 0xED, 0x55, 0xBE, 0x7E, 0x95, 0x2D, 0xC6,
0xD8, 0x33, 0x8B, 0x60, 0xB7, 0x5C, 0xE4, 0x0F, 0x11,
0xFA, 0x42, 0xA9, 0x1B, 0xF0, 0x48, 0xA3, 0xBD, 0x56,
0xEE, 0x05, 0xD2, 0x39, 0x81, 0x6A, 0x74, 0x9F, 0x27,
0xCC, 0x0C, 0xE7, 0x5F, 0xB4, 0xAA, 0x41, 0xF9, 0x12,
0xC5, 0x2E, 0x96, 0x7D, 0x63, 0x88, 0x30, 0xDB, 0x35,
0xDE, 0x66, 0x8D, 0x93, 0x78, 0xC0, 0x2B, 0xFC, 0x17,
0xAF, 0x44, 0x5A, 0xB1, 0x09, 0xE2, 0x22, 0xC9, 0x71,
0x9A, 0x84, 0x6F, 0xD7, 0x3C, 0xEB, 0x00, 0xB8, 0x53,
0x4D, 0xA6, 0x1E, 0xF5 //0xFF
};
void setupJoysticks() {
// Communication with gamecube controller on this pin
// Don't remove these lines, we don't want to push +5V to the controller
digitalWrite(N64_PIN, LOW);
pinMode(N64_PIN, INPUT);
// Initialize the gamecube controller by sending it a null byte.
// This is unnecessary for a standard controller, but is required for the
// Wavebird.
unsigned char initialize = 0x00;
noInterrupts();
N64_send(&initialize, 1);
// Stupid routine to wait for the gamecube controller to stop
// sending its response. We don't care what it is, but we
// can't start asking for status if it's still responding
int x;
for (x=0; x<64; x++) {
// make sure the line is idle for 64 iterations, should
// be plenty.
if (!N64_QUERY)
x = 0;
}
// Query for the gamecube controller's status. We do this
// to get the 0 point for the control stick.
unsigned char command[] = {0x01};
N64_send(command, 1);
// read in data and dump it to N64_raw_dump
N64_get();
interrupts();
translate_raw_data();
}
void translate_raw_data()
{
// The get_N64_status function sloppily dumps its data 1 bit per byte
// into the get_status_extended char array. It's our job to go through
// that and put each piece neatly into the struct N64_status
int i;
memset(&N64_status, 0, sizeof(N64_status));
// line 1
// bits: A, B, Z, Start, Dup, Ddown, Dleft, Dright
for (i=0; i<8; i++) {
N64_status.data1 |= N64_raw_dump[i] ? (0x80 >> i) : 0;
}
// line 2
// bits: 0, 0, L, R, Cup, Cdown, Cleft, Cright
for (i=0; i<8; i++) {
N64_status.data2 |= N64_raw_dump[8+i] ? (0x80 >> i) : 0;
}
// line 3
// bits: joystick x value
// These are 8 bit values centered at 0x80 (128)
for (i=0; i<8; i++) {
N64_status.stick_x |= N64_raw_dump[16+i] ? (0x80 >> i) : 0;
}
for (i=0; i<8; i++) {
N64_status.stick_y |= N64_raw_dump[24+i] ? (0x80 >> i) : 0;
}
}
/**
* This sends the given byte sequence to the controller
* length must be at least 1
* Oh, it destroys the buffer passed in as it writes it
*/
void N64_send(unsigned char *buffer, char length)
{
// Send these bytes
char bits;
bool bit;
// This routine is very carefully timed by examining the assembly output.
// Do not change any statements, it could throw the timings off
//
// We get 16 cycles per microsecond, which should be plenty, but we need to
// be conservative. Most assembly ops take 1 cycle, but a few take 2
//
// I use manually constructed for-loops out of gotos so I have more control
// over the outputted assembly. I can insert nops where it was impossible
// with a for loop
asm volatile (";Starting outer for loop");
outer_loop:
{
asm volatile (";Starting inner for loop");
bits=8;
inner_loop:
{
// Starting a bit, set the line low
asm volatile (";Setting line to low");
N64_LOW; // 1 op, 2 cycles
asm volatile (";branching");
if (*buffer >> 7) {
asm volatile (";Bit is a 1");
// 1 bit
// remain low for 1us, then go high for 3us
// nop block 1
asm volatile ("nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n");
asm volatile (";Setting line to high");
N64_HIGH;
// nop block 2
// we'll wait only 2us to sync up with both conditions
// at the bottom of the if statement
asm volatile ("nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
);
} else {
asm volatile (";Bit is a 0");
// 0 bit
// remain low for 3us, then go high for 1us
// nop block 3
asm volatile ("nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\n");
asm volatile (";Setting line to high");
N64_HIGH;
// wait for 1us
asm volatile ("; end of conditional branch, need to wait 1us more before next bit");
}
// end of the if, the line is high and needs to remain
// high for exactly 16 more cycles, regardless of the previous
// branch path
asm volatile (";finishing inner loop body");
--bits;
if (bits != 0) {
// nop block 4
// this block is why a for loop was impossible
asm volatile ("nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n");
// rotate bits
asm volatile (";rotating out bits");
*buffer <<= 1;
goto inner_loop;
} // fall out of inner loop
}
asm volatile (";continuing outer loop");
// In this case: the inner loop exits and the outer loop iterates,
// there are /exactly/ 16 cycles taken up by the necessary operations.
// So no nops are needed here (that was lucky!)
--length;
if (length != 0) {
++buffer;
goto outer_loop;
} // fall out of outer loop
}
// send a single stop (1) bit
// nop block 5
asm volatile ("nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n");
N64_LOW;
// wait 1 us, 16 cycles, then raise the line
// 16-2=14
// nop block 6
asm volatile ("nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n");
N64_HIGH;
}
void N64_get()
{
// listen for the expected 8 bytes of data back from the controller and
// blast it out to the N64_raw_dump array, one bit per byte for extra speed.
// Afterwards, call translate_raw_data() to interpret the raw data and pack
// it into the N64_status struct.
asm volatile (";Starting to listen");
unsigned char timeout;
char bitcount = 32;
char *bitbin = N64_raw_dump;
// Again, using gotos here to make the assembly more predictable and
// optimization easier (please don't kill me)
read_loop:
timeout = 0x3f;
// wait for line to go low
while (N64_QUERY) {
if (!--timeout)
return;
}
// wait approx 2us and poll the line
asm volatile (
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
"nop\nnop\nnop\nnop\nnop\n"
);
*bitbin = N64_QUERY;
++bitbin;
--bitcount;
if (bitcount == 0)
return;
// wait for line to go high again
// it may already be high, so this should just drop through
timeout = 0x3f;
while (!N64_QUERY) {
if (!--timeout)
return;
}
goto read_loop;
}
void debug()
{
int i;
// bits: A, B, Z, Start, Dup, Ddown, Dleft, Dright
// bits: 0, 0, L, R, Cup, Cdown, Cleft, Cright
Serial.println();
Serial.print("Start: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data1 & 16 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Z: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data1 & 32 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("B: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data1 & 64 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("A: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data1 & 128 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("L: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data2 & 32 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("R: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data2 & 16 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Cup: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data2 & 0x08 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Cdown: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data2 & 0x04 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Cright:");
Serial.println(N64_status.data2 & 0x01 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Cleft: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data2 & 0x02 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Dup: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data1 & 0x08 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Ddown: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data1 & 0x04 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Dright:");
Serial.println(N64_status.data1 & 0x01 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Dleft: ");
Serial.println(N64_status.data1 & 0x02 ? 1:0);
Serial.print("Stick X:");
Serial.println(N64_status.stick_x, DEC);
Serial.print("Stick Y:");
Serial.println(N64_status.stick_y, DEC);
}
void readJoysticks() {
int i;
unsigned char data, addr;
// Command to send to the gamecube
// The last bit is rumble, flip it to rumble
// yes this does need to be inside the loop, the
// array gets mutilated when it goes through N64_send
unsigned char command[] = {0x01};
// don't want interrupts getting in the way
noInterrupts();
// send those 3 bytes
N64_send(command, 1);
// read in data and dump it to N64_raw_dump
N64_get();
// end of time sensitive code
interrupts();
// translate the data in N64_raw_dump to something useful
translate_raw_data();
}
void interpretJoystickState() {
Joystick.setXAxis(N64_status.stick_x);
Joystick.setYAxis(-N64_status.stick_y);
Joystick.setButton(0, (N64_status.data1 & 16) ); //BUTTON1 (Start)
Joystick.setButton(1, (N64_status.data1 & 32) ); //BUTTON2 (Select) (Z)
Joystick.setButton(2, (N64_status.data1 & 128) ); //BUTTON3 (A)
Joystick.setButton(3, (N64_status.data1 & 64) ); //BUTTON4 (B)
Joystick.setButton(4, (N64_status.data2 & 0x04) ); //BUTTON5 (X) (Cdown)
Joystick.setButton(5, (N64_status.data2 & 0x02) ); //BUTTON6 (Y) (Cleft)
Joystick.setButton(6, (N64_status.data2 & 32) ); //BUTTON7 (LB) (L)
Joystick.setButton(7, (N64_status.data2 & 16) ); //BUTTON8 (RB) (R)
Joystick.setButton(8, (N64_status.data2 & 0x08) ); //BUTTON9 (LT) (Cup)
Joystick.setButton(9, (N64_status.data2 & 0x01) ); //BUTTON10 (RT) (Cright)
/*Joystick.setXAxisRotation(180);
Joystick.setYAxisRotation(180);
Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,-1);
Joystick.setButton(10, 0);
Joystick.setButton(11, 0);*/
Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,-1);
if ( (N64_status.data1 & 0x08) ) Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,0); //UP
if ( (N64_status.data1 & 0x04) ) Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,180); //DOWN
if ( (N64_status.data1 & 0x02) ) Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,270); //LEFT
if ( (N64_status.data1 & 0x01) ) Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,90); //RIGHT
if ( (N64_status.data1 & 0x08) && (N64_status.data1 & 0x01) ) Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,45); //UP-RIGHT
if ( (N64_status.data1 & 0x01) && (N64_status.data1 & 0x04) ) Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,135); //RIGHT-DOWN
if ( (N64_status.data1 & 0x04) && (N64_status.data1 & 0x02) ) Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,225); //DOWN-LEFT
if ( (N64_status.data1 & 0x02) && (N64_status.data1 & 0x08) ) Joystick.setHatSwitch(0,315); //LEFT-UP
}
void setup()
{
#ifdef DEBUG
Serial.begin(9600);
#endif
setupJoysticks();
Joystick.begin(false);
}
uint8_t oldData1 = 0xff;
uint8_t oldData2 = 0xff;
int8_t oldStick_x = 0;
int8_t oldStick_y = 0;
uint8_t flag = 0;
void loop() {
readJoysticks();
if (N64_status.data1 != oldData1) {
oldData1 = N64_status.data1;
flag = 1;
}
if (N64_status.data2 != oldData2) {
oldData2 = N64_status.data2;
flag = 1;
}
if (N64_status.stick_x != oldStick_x) {
oldStick_x = N64_status.stick_x;
flag = 1;
}
if (N64_status.stick_y != oldStick_y) {
oldStick_y = N64_status.stick_y;
flag = 1;
}
if (flag) {
interpretJoystickState();
Joystick.sendState();
flag = 0;
}
delayMicroseconds(1000);
#ifdef DEBUG
debug();
delay(200);
#endif
}